A Brief Introduction About the Montreal Agreement
Montreal agreement is a global agreement that was finalized in the year 1987, for the purpose to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by reducing the chemicals causing the depletion of the ozone layer. Montreal agreement mainly focuses on how to reduce the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). The United States signed this agreement in 1988 by adding four more amendments in the following years 1990 and 1992. So the United States is staying as a leader to take strong domestic actions to control the CFCs and halons.
People Involved in the Montreal Agreement
Initially, when the researcher found there is a hole in the ozone layer in the Antarctica region, officials of the United Nations decided to control the ozone-depleting substances by signing a treaty. Initially, it was signed by 24 countries and by the European Economic Community in September 1987 in Montreal. That is why the agreement is named with the place, and it is the best Montreal protocol definition. But later on, many countries joined the treaty to make it as an international treaty.
Now, there are 197 countries signed this international treaty to control the harmful ozone-depleting chemicals. All the countries in the United Nations signed this treaty along with other European and Asian countries.
Purpose of the Montreal Agreement
The Montreal agreement is mainly signed to control the halogenated hydrocarbons that deplete the ozone layer. This protocol primarily focused on to manage the two main halogens such as chlorine and bromine in the hydrogenated compounds, as they are much more harmful to the ozone layer. There are even some other chemicals like Nitrous Oxide, which is responsible for the ozone hole, but this treaty does not control them. They have some list of chemicals on which they concentrate to control and prevent them.
Contents of the Montreal Agreement
If you still doubt this agreement, here we clearly explain what the Montreal Protocol is? The Montreal Protocol is one of the most successful environment protection protocols. There is some sublet agreement that is also signed with this treaty is the Kyoto protocol. This is known as the Montreal sublet agreement. There are some four amendments too, along with this treaty initiated. This treaty controls some of the dangerous chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.
When the Montreal protocol is effectively implemented in the US, it will help to reduce more than 280 million people who have skin cancer in the future, 1.6 million skin cancer deaths and more than 45 million people of cataracts in the US alone. So when calculated worldwide, there will be a massive list of people who may suffer from the above issues.
The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol was developed in 1991. The main objective of this fund program is to provide financial and technical help to the developing countries that are members of this treaty. Such developing countries are found to be eligible when they are annual per capita consumption, and the production of ozone-depleting substances is not more than 0.3 kg. This means the fact that developing countries should control such harmful chemicals to get financial help.
Critical Points in Montreal Agreement
The Montreal Agreement is the first treaty that seems to be working successfully. Such a protocol has sent clear signals globally to reduce the production and consumption of ODS. As already discussed the Multilateral fund is providing financial and technical assistance for the developing nations when they try to control the creation of ODS. Such economic and professional support is provided through four implementing agencies such as
- United Nation Environment Program (UNEP)
- United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
- United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
- World Bank
According to the study, it was estimated that UNDP had supported almost 120 partner countries by providing financial assistance of $73.5 million as funds to them when they eliminated 67,779 tones of ODS in their countries. Such states also reduced 5.08 billion tones of greenhouse gas emissions too. The treaty is like encouraging partner countries to eradicate harmful chemicals through financial and technical support.
At the beginning of the protocol, negotiation depends on two main factors, such as leadership and innovations. Most of the negotiations happen without the knowledge of people like small and informal groups. In such negotiations, there was a good exchange of thoughts and views, which leads to the development of the multilateral fund.
Benefits & Drawbacks of the Montreal Agreement
Some of the great benefits of the Montreal agreement are: Due to this treaty, there will be a global reduction of HFCs which will help to prevent the 0.5 degree Celsius of warming by the year 2100, and thus the environment and economic conditions will get benefits due to the implementation of the protocol.
As 197 countries signed this international treaty and implemented the control measures, there comes a good result of the dropping of more than eight gigatons of carbon-di-oxide gases between 1988 and 2010. Due to this, five times, the annual emissions-reductions target is achieved in the first commitment period of 2088 to 2012. Thus, the Montreal Protocol is the most successful international agreement today. There are no such drawbacks to say about this treaty, but it only helps to control the ODS.
What Happens in Case of Violation?
The main aim of this protocol is to control and reduce harmful ODS, thus preventing environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some of the countries that are violating the rules of the treaty are taken severe actions. One such country is China which has a sudden record of increased CFC-11(1), but after this treaty enforced them about these issues, the country has taken several steps to reduce the same. When such gases are increased by violating the agreement, it will lead to the greenhouse effect and global warming.
The main objective of this treaty is to keep our environment safe from harmful chemicals and gases to avoid ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, and global warming. Thus, control the production and consumption of such ODS to save our environment.